The selection of a polymer as a suitable excipient is influenced by various criteria like drug solubility, rate of absorption, drug-polymer miscibility and stability. They are cheap, mechanically strong, and biocompatible for many applications. Interests: polymers from renewable resources; synthesis of functional polymers; structure–property relationships; novel polymeric materials of controlled biodegradability; application of mass spectrometry techniques to the structural study of synthetic polymers at the molecular level The wide variety of polymers and polymeric composites makes it possible to select and even customize the material to the specific application. Many FRP articles are routinely placed in contact with detergents, cleaning solvents, acids, alkalis, strong oxidising agents, bleach, cleaning and degreasing agents, fuels, hydraulic and brake fluids, de-icers, paint strippers (methylene chloride is known to be damaging), lubricants, etching chemicals, flue gases, or food and drink. Any navy vessel will face challenging conditions at sea. The level of interface roughness at which the transition from interfacial to cohesive wear occurs depends on the nature of the polymer, but corresponds typically to Ra (arithmetic mean roughness) values between 0.01μm and 1μm. (B) Mounted on a catheter. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an important PCM for textile applications. These containers release their contents under controlled conditions to meet a specific purpose. Recent progress in the development of nanofibers and especially nanotubes with diameters in the order of 100 nm and 1–100 nm, respectively, has achieved such drastic improvements in mechanical properties that significant increases in the elastic and strength properties of FRP composites are likely in the near future (Coleman et al,. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. However the sensor was bulky (in thickness) and use of air-cavity can prove to be lethal when employed for in-vivo applications (Fig. A few chemicals that are handled in chemical factories – such as powerful oxidising agents, strong caustic alkalis, bromine and wet chlorine – still pose severe problems for general-purpose resins. The Navy also has informal and formal procedures for test and evaluation of research products and has designated two submarines for such purposes. Robert et al. A key feature of FRP composites that makes them so promising as engineering materials is the opportunity to tailor the material properties through the control of fiber and matrix combinations and the selection of processing techniques. However, this approach also required multiprocessing steps and its result was not satisfactory. Their application allows to save energy (lighter cars and planes, thermally insulated buildings), protect food and drinking water (packaging), save land and reduce use of fertilizers (synthetic fibres), preserve other materials (coatings), protect and save lifes (hygiene, medical … 1-3 The nascent field of organic bioelectronics involves the coupling of organic electronic devices (such as electrodes and transistors) with biological systems, in an effort to bridge the biotic/abiotic interface. This developing idea is likely to grow rapidly in the near future, resulting in more efficient and sustainable structures. These special macromolecular compounds that change their properties to external stimuli (e.g., temperature and pH variations, light effect (laser triggered drug release)) include thermoresponsive polymers, pH-responsive polymers, and photo- and redox responsive systems [38]. Such transferring the film from its original substrate to the curved backing of the sensors can result in damage to the fragile piezoelectric film. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. From: Computational Quantum Chemistry, 2019, Nur Yazdani, ... Mina Riad, in Eco-Efficient Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Infrastructures, 2018. If the counterface is smooth, then wear may result from adhesion between the surfaces, and involve deformation only in the surface regions of the polymer. This class of polymers can retain two or sometimes three shapes, and the transition between those is mostly induced by temperature. It is important to note that the reduction in heating and cooling loads, resulting from the use of thicker hull board insulation, could also reduce equipment weight and equipment cost. Because of its high electromechanical coupling coefficient and its semi-crystalline nature, PVDF is a preferred choice for fabrication of robust and sensitive sensors. Phys. Appendix A: Current and Promising Polymer Research Topics, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Appendix B: Present and Potential Future Uses of Polymers by the Navy. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) exhibits the highest piezoelectricity among all piezoelectric polymers. Marriage of these two technologies paves the way for the development of smart composites and constitutes a foundation for biomimetics in structural design. As stated in Table B.2 , listing polymer uses by the Navy, polymeric matrix composites and advanced composites composing one or more stiff, high-strength reinforced fibers with a compatible resin system are already used for many Navy applications, such as radar domes, rocket motor casings, and aircraft structural parts. FRP applications in structural engineering have come a long way since their inception about three decades ago. Adapted from C. Li, P.M. Wu, L.A. Shutter, R.K. Narayan, Dual-mode operation of flexible piezoelectric polymer diaphragm for intracranial pressure measurement, Appl. [86, 87] where a similar sensor was fabricated directly on a flexible catheter and piezoelectric mode was used for pressure measurement. While each application poses different opportunities and challenges, certain general directions are apparent. These microscopic spheres containing PCM are called PCM-microcapsules. Synthesis of polymeric micelles involves using amphiphilic block copolymers that contain a hydrophilic block (e.g., PEG, poly(N-vinyl pyrolidone (PVP), poly(hydroxypropyl methacrylamide), and a hydrophobic block (PLA, PGA, PLGA, and PCL) with a self-assembly capacity. Compared to the likely scene fifty years from now, the current state of knowledge and practice of FRP applications in structural engineering can be considered as only in its infancy. Fig. Polymer application in biomedical devices and instruments is noteworthy and several discoveries or inventions in the field have raised the standard of human living. There are different types of paints available as per requirements and place of application on ship. Polymers encompass a broad category of large molecules created by the bonding of many similar constituent molecules. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Therefore, these materials are being used in more and more applications under more and more stringent requirements. O. Gunes, in Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, 2013. For a given application, the properties of a polymer can be tuned or enhanced by combination with other materials, as in composites. Part II reviews innovative FRP applications related to civil engi neering. HalliwellS. 1.1). In another study, Li et al. In this chapter, he describes the uses of advanced FRP composites in construction applications, the fabrication techniques which have driven those uses, and the advice available to someone thinking of using these materials. However, this extra step required the use of an adhesive layer and a proper fit to the final substrate. [85] reported the dual-mode operation of polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) piezoelectric polymer diaphragm, capacitive, or resonant mode, as flexible intracranial pressure sensors. Continuing efforts in discovering new polymers as well as modifying existing polymers Using PVDF, they reported four times higher sensitivity over existing commercial piezoresistive pressure sensor. NDT methods with emphasis on advanced, non-contact, and fast techniques are and will be an indispensable tool for condition evaluation and damage assessment of existing structures. 8.31. The toxicity of dendrimers is significantly influenced by the type of end groups and also the dendrimer's generation [49]. Automation and robotics play a big role in developing ultra-pure, sterilizable, and designable materials for the development of medical devices. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Compression or stress in the membrane produces charge, which is recorded using the metalized electrodes coated on either side of the diaphragm. Port Construction SNF Canada’s proposal is a change from the traditional lagooning process. This section of Polymer Applications under Polymers is a right channel to publish all types of applications related to polymeric materials and their composites. PVDF is an ideal biomaterial because it is nontoxic, inert, resistant to water absorption (absorbs < 0.04% by weight), biocompatible [82] and clean-room friendly. There is much room for further research and development in an effort to improve the capabilities of current NDT techniques and their combined use with complementary methods and strategies for better material characterization and damage assessment. Dome and bump-shaped PVDF-TrFE based piezoelectric tactile sensor modules for smart catheters. Polymer Applications Measuring nanomechanical properties to understand the performance of polymers. This is a relatively new field, but skin grafts, biocompatible coatings, and controlled drug release applications are already being tested. The advantageous features of polymers, such as high biocompatibility, environment friendly, bioavailability, high drug encapsulation capacity, and versatility, make it possible to combine these compounds as matrix with various nanostructures. It is recommended that surface preparation be accomplished using abrasive or water-blasting techniques, and all contaminants that could interfere with the bond between the FRP system and concrete substrate should be removed. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, and they constitute the basis of certain minerals and human-made materials, such as paper and plastics. Hutchings, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, 2001. For example, a lower-weight superstructure and hull mass would result in a lighter, smaller, and more stable vessel. Figure 14.2. to prevent stress concentrations in the FRP system as well as voids between the FRP and the concrete. Compared to engineering plastics, the suitability of commodity plastics, such as polyethylene and polypropylene, for biomedical applications is exemplary in the long run. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Lett. Polymers have many considerable advantages compared to metals and ceramics. The PCM fibres are then spun using conventional methods such as dry or wet spinning and extrusion of molten polymer. kept on board. These two classes of wear mechanism, involving surface and subsurface deformation respectively, have been termed interfacial and cohesive wear processes. Otherwise, the well-informed selection of materials, in consultation with the suppliers and after reference to the relevant data banks, means that problems with chemical attack can be avoided. Ready to take your reading offline? The emphasis is on practicalities rather than theory. Even now, exciting applications that include innovative hybrid or all FRP solutions to pressing infrastructure challenges continue to spur, instilling optimism about what is to come in the near future. All kinds of polymers, either conventional engineering polymer or newly developed one, from thermoset and thermoplastic to vitrimer, are included. Paints are the chief material used on board ships for corrosion prevention. Introduction. These materials may be incorpated into textiles by printing, coating and dyeing. Examples are given of typical products and how they are used. While such coatings are extensively used by the Navy, the panel believes that there are many new opportunities to improve the performance of coatings and to extend their range of applications, e.g., the reduction of flammability, as discussed above. Synthetic polymers are so well integrated into the fabric of society that we take little notice of our dependence on them. These include for example lightness, low cost, ease of manufacturing, and high versatility. [83] reported the film to be spin-coated on a flat substrate and transferred onto the rounded catheter backing. A detailed account of the application of such surface modification is included in the chapter, which covered drug delivery devices, tissue adhesives, bone substituents, etc. The microencapsulated PCM fibres can store heat for a long time. Polymers, whether natural or artificial, are big molecules made by linking up smaller repeating chemical units. However, many potential applications either have more demanding performance requirements or are unique to the shipbuilding industry and to the Navy, in particular. This is truly the polymer age! Fig. Proper preparation and profiling of the concrete surface is necessary to achieve the specified bond strength; improper surface preparation can lead to debonding or delamination. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. It must be stressed that the resistance of FRP to highly reactive chemicals is generally very good. 1.1). Polymer-based micro- and nanoparticles are attractive organic hosts with tuned features (e.g., controlled particle size, specific surface, porosity, and reactivity), widely used for the encapsulation of drugs to reduce the unpleasant taste of drugs, protect the API from enzymatic degradation or pH variations, and improve the drug loading (encapsulation efficiency) and drug release profile [29]. Another problem is that the adhesion layer can become a source of another interface, which may be a major concern at high frequencies where the thickness of the glue layer may approach the dimension of a wavelength of the acoustic signal. Such an increase was also possible due to the increase in crystallinity observed in thinner PVDF films. FUN FACT: – The polymer inside disposable diapers is called sodium polyacrylate. The sea and weather will demand much from not only the exterior but also the interior of the ship. Give up? Another concern is smoke and toxic gases liberated by combat-initiated fires, as most fire casualties occur from smoke inhalation and impaired vision that prevent escape. 8.30). To prevent dissolution while in the liquid state, PCMs are enclosed in small plastic spheres with diameters of only a few micrometers. J. Hu, J. Lu, in Smart Polymers and their Applications, 2014. Sharma et al. Conducting polymers (CPs) are an exciting new class of electronic materials, which … Not a MyNAP member yet? The spectrum of applications of polymers is immense. Society benefits across the board—in health, medicine, clothing, transportation, housing, defense, energy, electronics, employment, and trade. Such a sensor would address all the concerns that limit other current technologies from clinical adoption. In addition, there is a great need to supplement laboratory testing of potentially useful composite structures by realistic on-board evaluation using vessels dedicated for such purposes. The word “Polymer” is derived from two Greek words, ‘Poly’ that means many (numerous) and ‘Mer’ which means units. PCMs are either in a solid or liquid state during their application. The core is the active substance and can be discharged by friction, pressure or diffusion through the polymer wall, dissolution of the polymer wall coating or by biodegradation. As the knowledge-base on the material continues to grow, so does the potential of addressing the challenges for ageing infrastructure. While Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) tests indicate that a variety of specially treated composites performed better in a fire environment relative to aluminum and steel, it is also known that burning composite resins can generate smoke and noxious fumes. Finally, new scientific advancements have opened the door for the use of polymers in biomedical applications, which may provide future benefits to Navy personnel. 8.31). A successful use of advanced composites in more critical load-bearing shipboard structures will likely pose many scientific as well as technological challenges, including the further improvement of existing manufacturing methods as well as the development of new ones. Alternatively, if the counterface is rough then its asperities will cause deformation in the polymer to a significant depth. The potential advantages listed in Table B.1 provide the driving force for an increased use of polymers, but their application is also tempered by concerns, as well as currently perceived or documented performance deficiencies in both normal use and battle conditions. There is a growing consensus on the tremendous potential of these materials in addressing the challenges associated with the aging infrastructure all around the world. Light weight, corrosion-resistance, and ease of manufacture provide the main impetus for the use of polymers in these applications, and the market share of polymers for such applications is anticipated to continue to grow steadily in the future. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081021811000083, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857092342500051, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128168745000062, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081006368000053, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B0080431526017289, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857096951500145, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128148624000089, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780323461535000148, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780857092342500221, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845693527500151, Field assessment of concrete structures rehabilitated with FRP, Eco-Efficient Repair and Rehabilitation of Concrete Infrastructures, Failure modes in structural applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites and their prevention, Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, Polyethylene and polypropylene matrix composites for biomedical applications, Aravinthan Gopanna, ... Murthy Chavali, in, Provisions for installation, quality control, and maintenance, Strengthening of Concrete Structures using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP), Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices (Second Edition). (C) Tested inside vascular testing model. They were used for making devices such as scaffolds, bone cement, antimicrobial applications, hip prostates, and sutures, to name a few. The application of polymers are divided into various types of fields: Agricultural field: Mulching films, green house films are the best examples for the polymer films. Syst. AASHTO recommends that localized out-of-plane variations, including form lines, should not exceed 1/32 in. This explains their widespread use in the chemical process equipment industry, where it is often difficult to find any other affordable, processable materials capable of withstanding the very harsh conditions. Polymer, any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules that are multiples of simpler chemical units. The initial part of the chapter provided a general introduction about the properties of polyolefins and their applications. There should be opportunities for early shipboard evaluation of new technology and materials, including advanced composite structures and other polymer-containing systems. The different fabrication processes for biomedical devices were touched upon. Because of the ubiquitous properties of polyethylene and polypropylene, they were considered for fabricating biocompatible devices. Ahn, Flexible dome and bump shape piezoelectric tactile sensors using PVDF-TrFE copolymer, J. Microelectromech. 1.5 Submarines classified by GL will be included in the GL data file observing the secrecy requirements of the Naval Administration. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. It is rare for FRP articles to be attacked as rapidly as some common metals when placed in contact with acids. Hwai-Chung Wu, Christopher D. Eamon, in Strengthening of Concrete Structures using Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP), 2017. (Fig. Applications of polymers in drug delivery systems. In pharmaceutical applications, polymers are recommended as excipients (e.g., binder in tablet formulations, film coatings, enteric coatings) for drug formulations, components involved in the synthesis of polymer-drug bioconjugates or prodrugs, organic hosts for drug encapsulation and matrixes for various nanocomposites/hybrid materials based on inorganic nanostructured agents (e.g., clays, mesoporous silica), carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, etc. In Developments in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites for Civil Engineering, 2013. The formation of polyion complex between proteins, nucleic acids, or peptides and oppositely charged blocks from the micelle structure explains the capacity of this type of organic host to entrap hydrophilic therapeutic agents. Increase in PVDF crystallinity in nanostructures has revived interest in the polymer and its applications. also simulated relevant physiological conditions for testing of sensors (Fig. A composite structure embedded with intelligent sensors that monitor and respond to the structural health is forthcoming. Engineers will hopefully become more comfortable with the behavior of FRP-repaired concrete structures, with standards that provide detailed procedures for quality control and assurance of the FRP repaired structures. This seems to be unfortunate because polymers are easy to process. General application areas of polymer blends in automobile industry are exterior parts (body panels, seals, wheel covers, weather stripping, bumpers and fender, air dams, trims), interior parts (instrument panel, dashboard, door panels, steering wheels, seat and associated parts, instrument panel skin, decorative pieces), and underhood components (sensors, ignition compartments, fluid system, … In submarines, too, there are many potential applications for polymeric matrix composites, and there the achievement of a better balance in trim and an enhanced depth performance are often cited as potential advantages. An intelligent composite structure wired with a network of embedded sensors and actuators that monitors and responds to its own health no longer seems a distant possibility. This review article focuses on conducting polymers and their applications. An advantage of polymers for marine vessels is the low detectability by radar and the possibility of incorporating antifouling and/or drag-reducing agents. TBT is very lipid soluble, so it is easily taken up by cells where it inhibits energy transfer processes in respiration and photosynthesis. The process by which the polymers are formed is called polymerisation. Paints when applied on a structure create barrier between the structural surface and corrosion causing phenomenon. Zhang, Kazunori Hoshino, in Molecular Sensors and Nanodevices (Second Edition), 2019. Recent progress in the development of FRP composite materials and embedded sensor technologies are probably the most exciting developments for the future of civil engineering. Plastics and rubbers are widely used in industrial applications; as piping systems for chemicals, transport hoses, conveyor belts, tanks, membranes and a large number of other products. Photographs showing (A) flexible thin-film pressure sensors fabricated. Polymers are a highly versatile class of material which are found in all areas of engineering from avionics to biomedical devices and the development and implementation of these rely on polymer applications and data provided through rigorous testing. The polymeric excipients are inactive compounds that play an important role in the formulation of drug products. Aside from the present use of advanced composites in bow domes, several applications external to the pressure hull will be evaluated, and several others, such as “intelligent” hulls with special embedded sensors, are under consideration by the Navy. Schematics of the intracranial pressure sensor. Damage tolerance, for example, is of paramount importance for the use of polymers in structural components, and specifications define the length of time that structures under load must be able to resist fire with no “holing” or collapse. 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