It is inevitable, especially for those living in an urban city and modern society. They have found over 6,300 places where cyber criminals had broadcasted their crooked businesses with more than 45,000 ads listed.  “Comparing 2016 vs. 2017 YTD, the ransomware marketplace on the dark web has grown from $249,287.05 to $6,237,248.90, a growth rate of 2,502%,” Carbon Black experts write in their report. The left graph shows the most recurrent incidents by industry, whereas the right graph demonstrates the incident occurrence rate. In Internet Business Law Services (IBLS) article, published 2017, the Department of Homeland Security says about the joint project, that the task force is being expanded to include the U.S. Secret Service and other federal parties. Besides protecting computer networks, this organization will also strive to defend critical infrastructure such as power grid, transportation, water system, communications, public and financial services, utilities and other personal information. Old methods such as dial-up internet and switchboard have been replaced with condensed systems. The impact of cybercrime on your business is not only potentially damaging to your reputation but it could also be damaging to your intellectual property. d.  Unity of Governmental Effort. Various government entities possess different roles, responsibilities, authorities, and capabilities that can all be brought to bear on cyber incidents. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. For years, the banks would not admit that the Triad’s hackers could break their security codes. Breaches leaked personal data on a massive scale leaving victims vulnerable to fraud, while lives were put at risk and services damaged by the WannaCry ransomware campaign that affected the NHS and many other organisations worldwide. The stiff cardboard from the tops of Cornflake packets was used to create fake bank cards for insertion into cash machines. Whichever Federal agency first becomes aware of a cyber incident will rapidly notify other relevant Federal agencies in order to facilitate a unified Federal response and ensure that the right combination of agencies responds to a particular incident. Cyber-dependent crimes and the legislation which should be considered when reviewing and charging a cyber-dependent case; 3. It poses exceptional challenges to law enforcement entities everywhere in the world.  On the other side, this type of activity has brought law entities together and it made them dependent on one another in fight with the criminals that commit the crimes. This kind of software is often available for free. Cyber-crime has become one of the most challenging and difficult problem for today society, for the court system and law enforcement. (Nguyen, 2015). We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKDiss.com purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on Reviews.io. Privacy violations have face only a steady increase from 2005 year till 2014 year. Use of encrypted messages, payments with crypto currencies, involvement of Dark-nets and anonymous perpetrators have made cybercrime prosecutions very difficult and almost untraceable. The ubiquity of internet connectivity has enabled an increase in the volume and pace of cybercrime activities because the criminal no longer needs to be physically present when committing a crime. The main goal of IMPACT organization is to be more proactive against global cybercrimes rather than to be reactive to them. PPD 41 Principles that will guide Incident Response are listed below: “a.   Shared Responsibility. Individuals, the private sector, and government agencies have a shared vital interest and complementary roles and responsibilities in protecting the Nation from malicious cyber activity and managing cyber incidents and their consequences. Then, hackers applied malware that covered their actions from actual workers, to buy them some time to wire money unnoticeably. Although young criminals are often driven by peer kudos rather than financial reward, organised UK cyber crime groups are motivated by profit. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKDiss.com. Dissertation Ransomware attacks are easy to do and majority of victims are willing to pay for ransom in order to quickly gain back access in their computer system.  Some of the recent and well-known ransomware attacks that stroke computer systems across the world are Cerber, Locky, and the most famous one, WannaCry, which was the greatest challenge of the year, according to cybersecurity experts.  The total profit of ransomware sales sold on dark web are estimated to be between $250,000 to over $6m for just one year. Furthermore, some cybercrimes containing worms, malware, or ransomware very often are built as resistance methods to business practices or unjust government, missing consensus on identifying and labeling the particular forms of hacking as a lawbreaking conduct. Forbidden content circulating on internet (such as racist websites and child pornography) and 4. Keep all security software and operating systems updated (this can be set to update automatically). The wide extent of cyberspace enables terrorist groups to recruit, organize, spread and promote their ideas through cyber channels, online propaganda and other virtual resources. Battle against cybercrime includes from the federal government, through state, tribal, local and territorial agencies.  It must include Public sectors and industries to engage and cooperate in this fight.   Cybercrime is not just a domestic problem, its worldwide problem that strikes and threatens economic and national security.  Every living thing on this planet plays an important role in improving and protecting individual and mutual cybersecurity.   With the mobile devices invention explosion and proliferation of the Internet of Things bringing new cyber challenges, people globally must involve at least basic protective techniques that will lower the risk, increase the cost and create difficulties for cybercriminals.  United against cyber-crime, people on this planet will win over and aggressively fight back to strengthen national cybersecurity position in a limitlessly connected world.  The whole planet needs to contribute to make an important difference with a sound and multidimensional approach against cybercrime. We know that there is significant under-reporting, although the new General Data Protection Regulation is likely to prompt a better picture of scale. The most unfortunate fact about these robberies is that $900 million dollars’ loss could have been prevented should Banks in Ecuador and Vietnam did what they supposed to do, report the incidents and rise international awareness.  Unintentional error did more favor to prevent the robbery that the joined knowledge of these two independent nations. It seems that use of Internet is the most beneficial for terrorists to spread of propaganda. Why is that? (Golubev, 2005). Types of cybercrime 1. Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15564886.2016.1211404?scroll=top&needAccess=true, The White House (2015, February 25) FACT SHEET: Cyber Threat Intelligence Integration Center. (Dix, 2017).   There are many proposed ideas related to this topic but realization of this proposals is still up in the air. Free resources to assist you with your university studies! This advantage also promotes increase in productivity and assists businesses to operate more efficiently than in the past. Retrieved from: https://cybersecurityventures.com/cybersecurity-market-report/, Palmer, D.  (2017, October 11).  Ransomware is now a big business on the dark web and malware developers are cashing in.   Retrieved from: http://www.zdnet.com/article/ransomware-is-now-big-business-on-the-dark-web-and-malware-developers-are-cashing-in/, Rainie, L.  & Anderson, J.   (2017, June 6).   The Internet of Things Connectivity Binge: What are the Implications? It indicates efforts controlled at the national and international level, specifies the actions focused and directed towards prevention of illegal intrusion into computer systems. Cyber crime continues to rise in scale and complexity, affecting essential services, businesses and private individuals alike. With cyber-attacks able to cause such damage to networks and shut down services, the effects could be extremely damaging. With that in mind, government leaders and private sectors are coming together to build a cohesive force, to prevent future cyberattacks and fight back, because a weakness in any area can cause worldwide chaos. - A court order restricting internet access. This data has been collected from the database located at federal, state and local government.  The results in the left graph show that Finance and Insurance, Health Care, and Government entities have experienced the highest occurrences of reported breaches.  Looking at the graph on the right, its shown that Government agencies and companies within Education and Information systems are affected at a higher rate compared to all other industries.  It is definitely true that not all cyber incidents are reported, detected, or recorded in database, neither that there are currently reliable methods that would estimate the number of ‘unknown’ cyber-attacks. We have also developed close and effective partnerships with private industry to share information and technical expertise. According to WIRED (2016) report, it is suspected that the hackers were able to steal SWIFT login credentials from one of the Bangladesh Bank employees, by sending a Remote Access Trojan (RAT) or a similar form of spyware which gave hackers the ability to remotely access and control bank’s computer. We also work with partners such as the National Cyber Security Centre, Get Safe Online and Cyber Aware to promote ways for the public and businesses to protect themselves online. - A criminal record, that could affect education and career prospects. Besides having a mutual interest, it also benefits them to have mutual territories to operate together more proficiently and effectively. Most cyber attacks could be prevented by taking these basic security steps: For further advice on how to stay safe online please visit Cyber Aware, Get Safe Online or the National Cyber Security Centre. Cyber crime and the law The UK has strict laws around cyber crime and committing a cyber offence can result in hefty fines and imprisonment, with life sentences possible in the most serious of cases, for example for a large-scale cyberattack that causes a threat to national security. Looking at security incidents occurrences, we can see a very sharp rise between 2012 and 2014 year. The causal issue is uncertain because there were no significant industry and policy mediations that would initiate visible deviations in reporting. You could suffer a security breach or attack. Ransomware has become one of the most profitable businesses for cybercriminals. (Romanosky, 2016). Two free lesson plans from the National Crime Agency, on the causes and effects of cybercrime, and how to avoid it. In the event a significant Federal Government interest is served by issuing a public statement concerning an incident, Federal responders will coordinate their approach with the affected entities to the extent possible. Through the joint effort, smaller and less developed countries will be better prepared to protect their computer network. First, on a solely financial grade, cyber misdeed engages the robbery of millions, possibly even billions, of dollars every year. This was the first international contract on technical and juridical aspects of discovering, investigating and indicting cybercriminals. These data cover the 10-year period from 2005 to 2014. By Legal Futures’ Associate The Cashroom. Such tactics may furthermore push terrorist communications much beneath the radar and contradict any assistance that’s being offered. The Internet of Things (IoT) technology, mobile apps, and instant communication across the globe are now settled in all aspects of public businesses such as health, education, banking, transportation, and other critical infrastructure. Young people getting involved with cyber crime could face: 1. The only difference is that while drug “mules” smuggle quite small amounts of illegal drugs across the border, cyber “mules” commonly use their personal accounts to keep and handover millions of dollars fraudulently deposited from virtually robbed banks. Computer system hacking; 2. Currently, what is happening among many countries, the joint effort to pursue cyber-criminal investigation nationally is showing some good results. For purposes of this directive, a cyber incident may include a vulnerability in an information system, system security procedures, internal controls, or implementation that could be exploited by a threat source. The new crime trend, cyber hacking, started by the Triad mobs in Hong Kong. All work is written to order. Let’s look at the example of the Bangladesh Central Bank hack. October was the month for Cyber Security Awareness in Europe. Schmidt served as the cybersecurity adviser to the White House during part of the George W. Bush administration, and he also has worked as the chief security officer for major computer and Internet companies.” Written by author Boland, (2008). Criminals and the technical infrastructure they use are often based overseas, making international collaboration essential. The most public things in the flourishing of IoT are voice activated assistants, cars, household appliances and other systems, medical devices, smart meters, personal health and fitness trackers, and many more. Being arrested 6. Law Enforcement take cyber crime extremely seriously and will make every effort to arrest and prosecute offenders. Retrieved form: https://www.bleepingcomputer.com/news/security/ransomware-dark-web-economy-increased-by-2-502-percent/, Comey, J. “Each country, business and individual has to do their part to secure cyberspace,” Howard Schmidt, a member of the nine-person IMPACT international advisory board, says. Cyber crime costs the UK billions of pounds, causes untold damage, and threatens national security. Products and services have become easily accessible with advance of telecommunication, free social media and flexible mobile networks. The US cyber-security firm “Carbon Black” reported 2,502% increase in the ransomware Dark Web economy, compared to the 2016 year. Cybercrime is a crime and it is illegal. You’ve probably noticed that cybercrime is now a regular feature of the headlines and television news. This guidance provides a summary of the main types of cybercrime offending and highlights where further guidance is available. The internet has definitely revolutionized the way people connect these days and also the way data is distributed between interacting parties. IMPACT goal is to also develop quick and immediate response systems so threats happened in one state can be stopped and removed before they spread to other regions. To collect data for their report, Carbon Black researched the Dark Web websites that had forum posts offering to sell ransomware or ransomware services. A single incident that damages a firm's reputation or compromises the integrity of its electronic storefront could result in unrecoverable losses. For example, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. has doubled their annual cybersecurity budget, and Bank of America has come forward stating that they have unlimited budget to spend on fight against cybercrime. (2013, July 12) Confirmation Hearing of James Comey. https://www.fbi.gov/news/podcasts/thisweek/james-comeys-confirmation-hearing.mp3/view, Desjardins, J.  (2017, March 21).  These are the Countries Most (and Least) Prepared for Cyber Attacks.   Retrieved from: http://www.visualcapitalist.com/countries-least-prepared-cyber-attacks/, Dix, R.  B.   (2017, January 11).   5 Strategies for Addressing Cyber Crime.  Retrieved from: https://gcn.com/articles/2017/01/11/strategies-addressing-cybercrime.aspx, Experian.  (2017, June 27).  Survey, Most Companies Ill-prepared for a global data breach.   Retrieved from: http://www.experian.com/blogs/data-breach/2017/06/27/survey-companies-ill-prepared-global-data-breach/, Fbi.  (2016, July 27).  FBI Director Speaks at Cyber Security Gathering.  Retrieved from: -https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/fbi-director-speaks-at-cyber-security-gathering, Glover, T.  (2012, January 7).   Cyber-crime could trigger a global crisis.   Retrieved from https://www.thenational.ae/business/money/cyber-crime-could-trigger-a-global-crisis-1.371191, Golubev, V. (2005, April 16). The UK Stance on Cybersecurity Following the WannaCry ransomware attacks, that targeted hospitals and other main organizations, Microsoft has released a new patch for Windows XP.   This product is formally no longer supported, but Microsoft is out of concerned for state-sponsored cyberattacks that has happened so far and will probably continue to happen. Cyber criminals seek to exploit human or security vulnerabilities in order to steal passwords, data or money directly. The average direct cost to a small business for a single attack in 2013 was almost $9,000, but that excludes brand damage and other soft costs. Another barrier to more successful cyber-crime investigation strategy is data protection law.   Data protection law makes it difficult when data transfer is needed between private and public organizations, especially involvement of the Internet of Things, whose platform design lacks privacy and security measures.   Yet another issue, which seems to be one of the major issues, is lack of law enforcement experts in field of cyber-crime investigations.  Evolution of cyber threats is on rise, and the law enforcement are doing everything they can to educate and train new members to combat this type of crime.  (Schallbruch, 2017, April 24). Cyber crime has become a global threat from Europe to America, Africa to Asia. Cyber crime is a global threat. Over half of the population in the Middle East and Latin America, 40% of the population in Asia, and about one quarter of the African population accessed the Internet on one day in November 2015 (http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm). Sentencing for cybercrime What is the sentence for cybercrime in 2021? The Bangladesh Bank breach could have been prevented, should the Tien Phong Bank reported their experience immediately it had happened. From: In a World Where Criminals keep Getting smarter, how should we fight cybercrime.  https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2017/11/cybercrime-how-we-should-fight-criminals/. 2016;2(2):121-135. doi:10.1093/cybsec/tyw001. Therefore, it is vital to start cooperation between law enforcement organizations across whole Europe at early stages of investigations. Data breach incidents has reached its high record in 2016.  According to a cybersecurity company “Risk Based Security “there were 4,149 incidents in102 world countries, causing a breach of more than 4.2 billion records.  Another survey, so called Ponemon’s survey, has underestimated the extent of global data breaches, stating that 51% of respondents reported a global record breach in the past five years, and 56 % of companies suffering from the breach, has been hit by the incident more than once. There is a strong evidence that this problem has possibly devastating consequences. According to author of an article” Vietnam’s TienPhongBank Stops attempted fraud through Swift System”, Peyton (2016), the bank authorities explained that bank performs transfers using third party infrastructure from an outside vendor who was hired to link it to the Swift system ban uses for messaging.  The bank did not reveal the service provider name, although the bank has immediately stopped cooperation with that vendor and switched to a new system with much stronger security that enables bank to connect directly with Swift. According to The White House statement, the U.S. Government is planning on investing over $19 billion for cybersecurity in 2017. At the sixth annual International Conference on Cyber Security in New York City, Director James Comey announced Presidential Policy Directive 41, which confirmed that the FBI’s is going to be a major cyber incident response party, and highlighted the significance of a national discussion over encryption and the Going Dark concern. Unfortunately, on a regular basis, some vital information slip through the cracks, because of poor communication between state governments, and such lost information could have been used to avoid future problems. Connection leads into connection. Fortunately, the bank was diligent enough to prevent the theft, and save itself a loss of $1.1 million. However, cyber fraud has something in common with the worldwide distribution of illegal drugs. DataEndure’s Digital Defense SOC-as-a-Service (SOCaaS) is an ideal solution for companies to augment their own security capabilities. Due to incompetent, inadequate, inaccurate, and often partial analysis, it is hard to define the full extent of cyber-crimes. As a result of losing tens of billions of pounds annually, the government are now taking an aggressive stance against those involved in cybercrime. Governments around the world have historically struggled to meet these threats, but that is changing as the consequences of attacks become increasingly ominous. Internet technology has made the world smaller in its distinctive way, as it has become an everyday standard and relatively essential part of our lives due to the fact that everyone and everything relies and revolves around internet technology.   Despite all the benefits that internet technology has to offer, there are some downsides that also makes our world smaller.  As people continue to sail in cyberspace waters and handle majority of professional businesses virtually, this has generated huge chances for cyber-crime. The government is very aware of the real threat that cyber crime poses to the UK economy. But that is not only thing that will continue to grow and develop. Cyber crimes in the form of bullying, identity theft, cyber stalking and cyber defamation are very common these days and often lead to an awkward situation for the victims of these attacks. Expenses that individuals pay someone to fix malware problems, to wipe and restore computer or smartphone, is usually unrecorded, therefore analysts are unable to take that into a count when they analyze cybersecurity costs. Throughout life, people experience numerous changes, bringing advances in way people communicate, operate and exist. Even research agencies and some corporations are called to join the organization. For example, Apple Inc. is categorized under manufacturing business, and health insurance companies are coded as Finance and Insurance, instead under Health Care.   It is discovered that around 80 percent of existing cyber breaches are caused by negligence and lack of users’ knowledge.  Remaining 20 percent are due to more complexed methods, such as ransomware, malware, botnets, distributed denial of service attacks and other threats.   Overall concern for cybercrime is on alert, but improving basic cyber hygiene will significantly contribute to overall better cyber protection and reduce cybercrime rates and overall damages that are result of it.  Internet user education and training on cyber related criminal activities is a key factor that will need to get in effect immediately.   Strategies to address cybercrime problems should include: raising awareness, being able to identify trusted resources, building an economic framework, working with invested partners, and implementing a response plan. State sponsored cyber-weapons are now a very real threat to our various blends of Liberal Democracy – from espionage (e.g. Cybercrime Laws in the UK. In today society, 49% of the world’s population has an internet connection and an approximately 8.4 billion people worldwide have things connected online.  Currently, the IoT is in full bloom. (Experian, 2017). Wong and Solon (2017), in their article: “Massive ransomware cyber-attack hits nearly 1000 countries around the world” wrote that:” Security researchers at Kaspersky Lab have recorded more than 45,000 attacks in 99 countries, including the UK, Russia, Ukraine, India, China, Italy, and Egypt. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Reference this. This absence in reporting can possibly mean that the rise is due an increase of actual events such as more security intrusions happening in the organizations. (Glover 2012). IT analyst forecasts 12-15 percent cybersecurity market growth until 2021.   Unfortunately, cybersecurity analysts are still unable to keep up with the dynamic cybercrime increase, epidemics of ransomware, malware relocating from desktop computers and laptops to mobile devices and smartphones, the distribution of billions of IoT devices that are under-protected, the masses of hackers-for-hire, and the more complex cyber-attacks affecting businesses, healthcare and educational institutions, governments, and consumers globally. According to SANS institute, most organizations enclose their cybersecurity spending and budgets into another cost center. Eurojust and Europol have detected an increase of encrypted electronic data in current cyber-crime activities, therefore EU cyber investigators have to mainly handle the cases involving with these data. This guidance explains: 1. The most common cyber threats include: The scale and complexity of cyber attacks is wide ranging. Computer system fraud; 3. “This economy extorts, according to the FBI, ransom payments that totaled about $1B in 2016, up from $24M in 2015.”, stated author of an article “Ransomware Dark Web Economy Increased by 2,502%”, Cimpanu (2017).  Ransomaware as a Service (RaaS) promotion started in early 2017, which significantly contributed to Ransomware aggressive growth.  Beside all this, there are also sole sellers (malware authors) who only sell the ransomware basics, and let the buyers deal with the rest the best they can.  Interesting fact also discovered by Carbon Black experts is that some ransomware authors profit is more than $100,000 per year, which is much profitable than the average income of the legitimate software developer whose average annual salary is around $69,000. Next graph bellow shows incidents and incident rates classified by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS): From: Examining the costs and causes of cyber incidents, J Cyber Security. All we could do now is to continue to bond together in a joint effort and keep fighting the good fight  Â. Government actions indented to fight this rising threat, have been specified into three distinct methods: securitization, negotiation and intelligence-led collection and prosecution. It is recommended that organizations and companies should think of ways to improve security, as long as justifying these risks will balance off the costs. (Palmer, 2017). Barrett, D. & Burne, K. (2016, May 19). Widespread cybercrime, that has become a transnational crime, has brought together crime fighting entities all around the globe and forced them into international collaboration, more than any other criminal activity. 'Off the shelf' tools mean that less technically proficient criminals are now able to commit cyber crime, and do so as awareness of the potential profits becomes more widespread. Cybersecurity Enterprises forecasts that global expenditure on cybersecurity services, experts, and products will exceed $1 trillion over the next five years.  In 2004, the global cybersecurity marketplace was worth $3.5 billion and in it is estimated that it is worth more than $120 billion currently.   It shows that cybersecurity marketplace increased roughly 35 times over 13 years.  While all other technology divisions are motivated towards reducing inefficiencies and promoting efficiency, cybersecurity field expenses are inspired by cybercrime. With each passing day, we witness more and more alarming cases of cyber crimes in Nigeria, with each new case more shocking than the one before. A 25-year old man from Bradford has been arrested on suspicion of committing Computer Misuse Act (CMA) and fraud offences, following the recent cyber incident affecting Lancaster University. (Morgan, 2017). Consumer spending on information-security is not encountered for and is often impossible to track, according to author Morgan (2017). Wall Street Journal SWIFT related cyber heist in Ecuador. The modest increase in privacy violations is probably because of the nationwide attentiveness that suspected violations and early privacy incidents happened (such as rise in Facebook popularity, Google Street View, surveillance movement, etc.). It was meant for anyone who got it.” Said Wong & Solomon, (2017).  When compared with traditional weapons, cyber weapons have several different capabilities.  First, cyber-weapons cause damage that’s less apparent but more extensive; Second, cyber-attack can happen instantly, and it can hit anywhere in the world, cyber-world has no boundaries, and third, if happens to be used, cyber weapon will be used only one time. Internet technology is in charge of the global immediate interaction that comes by advantage of technology. Glover (2012) also stated that according to some reports, cyber criminals are spending their massive fortune on buying political authorities and paying for various forms of protection to cover their criminal activities. Widespread cybercrime, that we can freely say it is transnational crime, has brought together crime fighting entities all around the globe and forced them into international collaboration, more than any other criminal activity. With just a few key strokes people are able to buy goods, exchange ideas, meet new people and new cultures that exist in other parts of the world, which used to be impossible to realize for some people.  Instant access to the information has greatly contributed to extend human reach. The following: Protection from Harassment Act 1997 across whole Europe at early stages of investigations imprisonment... And services have become easily accessible with advance of telecommunication, free social media and flexible networks! 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